) do not lose weight in March, but feel sad in June. Many friends have started a diet plan; it is true that “seven points for eating and three points for moving”, and exercise is also in vain.
“one gram of protein produces 4kcal of energy, one gram of fat produces 9kcal of energy, one gram of carbohydrate produces 4kcal of energy, and one gram of pure alcohol produces 7kcal of energy”. Yang Lihua, a nutritionist in charge of the Clinical Nutrition Department of the first hospital of Peking University, said that the first step of reducing fat is to reasonably control the intake of energy, so that the energy can be in a negative balance state. Only when the intake is small and the consumption is too much, can we use our own stored fat, and the human body’s energy mainly comes from protein, fat and carbohydrate. Therefore, eating the three substances to lose weight is half the effort.
protein: different proteins have different effects.
protein intake during weight loss should be higher than usual, to reach 20% – 25% of the total calories, while the normal people’s intake of heat accounted for 10% – 15% Yang Lihua said that protein can increase satiety, maintain nitrogen balance, reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, increase bone mineral content, increase protein intake, and reduce the consumption of lean weight.
however, protein can also be divided into high-quality protein and non quality protein. Animal protein and soybean protein are high quality protein. Yang Lihua stressed that soybeans refer to soybeans, green beans and black beans, and other beans are miscellaneous beans.
Yang Lihua pointed out that some studies have found that different proteins play a slightly different role in the body. The lipid-lowering effect of soybean protein is better than that of casein. Whey protein can reduce the decomposition of muscle protein. Combined with exercise, it can increase lean tissue, increase the intake of whey protein, and also help to improve glucose metabolism and reduce weight.
fat: the fat of spareribs is more than that of streaky pork.
Yang Lihua pointed out that during the weight loss period, the daily fat intake should not exceed 30% of the total calories. It is suggested that the cooking oil should be kept between 15-20 grams per day. It is better to choose the cooking methods such as steaming and cold mixing, and it is better to eat a variety of vegetable oils alternately.
Yang Lihua said that many people think that streaky pork contains a lot of fat, but they don’t know that the fat content of spareribs is more. She explained that “the fat content of 100 grams of spareribs is about 60%, and the fat content of 100 grams of streaky pork is about 30%. You should choose lean meat, fish, shrimp, chicken, duck, beef and mutton.
staple food: try to choose coarse cereals
the average person’s carbohydrate should account for 50-65% of the total energy, but the weight loss friend should be about 45%. Yang Lihua said that in addition to rice and noodles, we can eat some substitutes for staple food. She said for example: “with the same energy of 90kcal, rice and noodles can only be 25g, but pumpkin with the same energy can eat 350g, yam 150g, taro 150g, potato and sweet potato 100g. All these can replace staple food. In addition, there is a konjac flour with low energy. 250g konjac flour is equivalent to 25g of grain energy ”。
Yang Lihua reminds everyone that the lack of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals can lead to some obesity related diseases. Therefore, every day to ensure more than 500 g of vegetables, the best is 5, 6 varieties, more than three colors, and dark color vegetables to account for half. Fruit intake is about 200-350 grams per day, juice can not replace fresh fruit.
finally, Yang Lihua stressed that after weight loss of 5% – 10%, our basic metabolism will also decline. At this time, we must increase exercise to improve the basic metabolic rate, so as to overcome the plateau period in the process of weight loss.
three methods can be selected in different stages and different methods
according to the latest Chinese expert consensus on overweight and obesity medical nutrition treatment in 2016, currently, three dietary methods are mainly used for weight loss.
first, energy limited balanced diet: to limit energy while trying to ensure the balance of protein, fat and carbohydrate. On the basis of the target intake, reduce by a certain proportion (30-50%), or reduce the target intake by 500 kcal per day.
second, high protein diet: low energy and high protein diet, protein intake per day should be more than 20% (or 1.5g / kg / D) of the daily total energy, but not more than 30% of the total energy (or 2.0g / kg / D). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not suitable for high protein diet.
third, light fasting: also known as intermittent fasting, using the 5 + 2 mode, 7 days of the week have 5 days of normal diet, 2 days (discontinuous) intake of a quarter of the usual energy. It is not suitable for children, patients with diabetes and stomach diseases. Yang Lihua of
suggested that in the first stage of fat reduction, light fasting can be used for transition; in the second stage, visceral fat should be reduced and high protein diet should be adopted; in the third stage, energy limited balanced diet should be adopted for the purpose of reducing body fat. According to the degree of obesity, combined diseases, liver and kidney function, we should find a professional nutritionist to make a specific plan.
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