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Experts interviewed by

: Song Xin, nutritionist, Department of nutrition, Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing; Wang Li, deputy chief physician of Nephrology Department of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, recently received a hot news on the Internet: more and more patients with hyperkalemia in emergency department, and doctors asked their medical history and suspected that it was caused by long-term consumption of high potassium and low sodium salt. Is low sodium salt really “lethal salt”? This reporter interviewed authoritative experts to answer.

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low sodium salt is not “lethal salt.”

low sodium salt is an appropriate reduction of sodium content in table salt and an increase in potassium content. More than 99% of common salt is sodium chloride, and the main components of high potassium and low sodium salt are about 65% of sodium chloride, 25% of potassium chloride and 10% of magnesium sulfate. It is very beneficial to control sodium and increase potassium.

Wang Li, deputy chief physician of the Department of Nephrology of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, said that potassium is an essential electrolyte for the human body. The human blood potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 mmol / L to 5.5 mmol / L. normal blood potassium concentration plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular function. However, when the serum potassium concentration is higher than 5.5 mmol / L, hyperkalemia will occur, which may be life-threatening. However, only the decrease of renal potassium excretion and excessive input of potassium containing drugs can lead to hyperkalemia. In healthy people or patients with normal renal function, as long as they do not take diuretics that can maintain potassium and excrete sodium at the same time, the body will excrete excess potassium from the body, which can make the potassium concentration in the body reach normal. Therefore, it is absurd to think that low sodium salt is lethal salt. However, people with kidney disease, such as acute and chronic renal failure, adrenocortical hypofunction, renal tubular acidosis, etc., have decreased renal potassium excretion capacity, which is easy to lead to hyperkalemia. Therefore, these people are not recommended to eat high potassium and low sodium salt.

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and “potassium rich” diet is one of the ways to achieve “low sodium”. Potassium in

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is not only a pair of friends but also a pair of enemies with the familiar sodium. Potassium mainly exists in the cell, while sodium mainly distributes outside the cell. Potassium and sodium both antagonize and cooperate with each other to maintain normal cell osmotic pressure, acid-base balance and neuromuscular excitability.

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are contrary to sodium in raising blood pressure. Potassium has a significant effect on lowering blood pressure, and the effect of “one part” potassium can counteract the effect of three parts of sodium on blood pressure. For modern people whose sodium intake is generally higher than the recommended amount, this is also an important significance of “potassium” rich diet in life. We can rest assured that potassium will play a role in lowering blood pressure only when the intake of high sodium (high salt diet) leads to hypertension; patients with hypertension caused by non high sodium diet will not reduce blood pressure due to potassium supplement; for people with normal blood pressure, potassium intake will not reduce blood pressure.

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should be specially reminded not to take potassium containing pharmaceutical preparations easily, because the nature of drugs and food is very different. Excessive potassium intake is also not conducive to heart health, but may cause heart block, slow heart rate, serious cases can lead to cardiac arrest. Need to take medicine potassium, need to follow the doctor’s guidance. The diet of

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does not lack potassium. Potassium is an essential mineral for human body. Potassium deficiency may not only cause muscle weakness and arrhythmia, but also increase the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, the current recommended intake of potassium is 2000 mg / d. to prevent chronic diseases, the recommended amount should be increased to 3600 mg / day. As long as the diet structure is reasonable, it is not difficult to ensure the appropriate intake of potassium, but to achieve the purpose of preventing chronic diseases, we need to pay attention to it. In addition to high potassium and low sodium salt, the best sources of potassium are vegetables (especially green leafy vegetables, fungi, algae and potatoes), fruits and beans. The average content of potassium in 100 grams of beans is 600-800 mg. Among them, every 100 grams of soybeans, black beans, red beans, etc. is as high as 800 mg; fruits and vegetables are also “rich in potassium”, for example, a medium-sized potato contains nearly 1g of potassium, a banana contains about 400mg of potassium; and every 100g of cereal contains 100-200mg of potassium, meat of 150-300mg, fish of 200-300mg. Every 100 grams of food containing more than 800 mg of potassium are Tricholoma, laver, tremella, agaric, black beans, red beans, scallops and so on. ▲

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